Mediterranean Women in Romans 16 explores the cultural context of women in Romans 16 and seeks to shed new light on the discussion of the role of women in the early church. A social-scientific model of cultural values is constructed based on the findings of anthropological studies in the Mediterranean. The model is nuanced to reflect the insights gained from the study of women in ancient Greek, Jewish and Roman cultures. Anthropological studies are one lens through which these insights are viewed to seek to understand the values and behaviors of women in the Mediterranean. Hence, the nuanced model ultimately sheds light on the study of women in Romans 16 who were a part of the Mediterranean culture. Such a model is also useful as a guide to understanding women in New Testament texts as they relate to the understanding of women in their ancient context.